Bloom Formation on Poorly-Tempered Chocolate and Effects of Seed Addition

Y. Kinta, R.W. Hartel, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 2010, 87, 19–27

Bloom on chocolate with different levels of cocoa butter seed addition was investigated. When insufficient cocoa butter seed crystals were added to give proper temper, the chocolate developed bloom as dark brown spheres in lighter color areas, similar to that seen in bloom on untempered chocolate. These dark colored spheres overlapped and the lighter color areas disappeared with increasing seed amount added. The relationship between seed amount and lighter color area (bloom), as quantified by image analysis, showed that over 270 ppm seeds (fat basis) were needed to accomplish good tempering. The cocoa butter crystallization behavior with various amounts of seed was observed by light microscopy. Too few seeds caused sparse beta crystallization and massive betaprime crystallization, which explains the appearance of poorly tempered chocolate bloom. As seed amount increased, beta crystallization of cocoa butter took less time to reach the upper level of solid fat content and the size became smaller. In addition, DSC analysis was carried out to study crystallization and melting behavior of cocoa butter with different seed amounts. Higher levels of added seeds resulted in greater amounts of beta crystal formation and the crystallization temperature increased, which meant crystallization occurred earlier. These results showed that the mechanism of bloom formation on poorly tempered chocolate (insufficient seeds) is due to sufficient time and space for phase (particles and fat) separation as the stable polymorphs grow.