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2012 Confectionery Fats

Smith K.W., Confectionery fats, In Cocoa Butter and Related Compounds, Eds. Garti N., Widlak N.R., AOCS Press, Urbana, IL (2012)

This chapter covers the principal classes of confectionery fats. The formulation of the blends is described, as well as their triacylglycerol composition and polymorphism. The importance of compatibility with cocoa butter is discussed, as is the way in which product processing differs for the various fat types.

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2011 Saturated fat reduction in ice cream

Underdown J., Quail P.J., Smith K.W., Saturated fat reduction in ice cream, In Reducing saturated fat in foods, Ed. Talbot G., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge (2011)

Ice cream is made and eaten in almost every country in the world and the total global production is around 15 billion litres annually with a market value of around £35 billion. The challenge in reducing saturated fat (SFA) is to retain the desirable eating qualities of the ice cream, to which fat contributes a great deal. This chapter explores the reduction of fat level, the option of fat replacers, the use of fats containing lower SFA and the application of novel processing to enable reformulation.

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2009 Ingredient preparation: the science of tempering

Smith K.W., Ingredient preparation: the science of tempering, In Science and technology of enrobed and filled chocolate, confectionery and bakery products Ed. Talbot G., Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge (2009)

This chapter considers tempering from a scientific, rather than practical, perspective. It begins by looking at the importance of tempering as it relates to product quality, before climbing the steps to its understanding. Starting with the polymorphic behaviour triacylglycerols, it moves on the look at the specific behaviour of cocoa butter, examines how tempering leads to the formation of stable seeds, then looks at how the quality of temper is measured. Finally, comments are made on technologies that may have an impact on tempering in the future.

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2001 Crystallization in Food Emulsions

Povey M.J.W., Hindle S. and Smith K.W., Crystallization in Food Emulsions, In Food Colloids – Fundamentals of Formulation, Ed. Dickinson E & Miller R, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge (2001)

In foods, emulsion crystallization was discovered accidentally, first as part of the butter churning process and then in margarine manufacture. Margarine and fatty spreads are oil-in-water emulsions in which a crystal network stabilizes and structures what is basically a liquid, giving it solid properties. Margarine manufacture is a little more complicated than simple emulsion crystallization.

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2001 Crystallization of Palm Oil and its Fractions

Smith K.W., Crystallization of Palm Oil and its Fractions, In Crystallization Processes in Fats and Lipid Systems, Ed. Garti N. & Sato K., Marcel Dekker, New York (2001)

Palm oil is an important raw material obtained from the mesocarp (fruit flesh) of Elaeis guineensis.  It currently represents about 23% of the world output of the major vegetable oils and fats.  The last four decades have seen a dramatic increase in the world production of palm oil, especially from Malaysia, with significant growth occurring in Indonesia and also, to a lesser degree, in Ivory Coast.  For example, palm oil production in Malaysia has increased more than 100 fold from 92,000 tonnes in 1960 to 10.55 million tonnes in 1999 and now accounts for more than 50% of the world production. The growth of palm oil in the world oils and fats market has led to many studies, particularly into its crystallisation behaviour and, more recently, into its nutritional value.

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2001 Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Butter Equivalents

Smith K.W., Cocoa Butter and Cocoa Butter Equivalents, In Structured Lipids and Modified Lipids Ed. Gunstone F., Marcel Dekker, New York (2001)

Cocoa butter is derived from the cocoa bean, the seed of the Theobroma tree, principally grown in South America and West Africa. Once the shell has been removed from the seed, the remaining nib contains approximately fifty-five percent fat. Following fermentation and drying (roasting) of the beans, the nibs are ground to give cocoa liquor. This can be used to make chocolate although, for normal applications, it is necessary to add additional cocoa butter. This cocoa butter is removed from the liquor or from the bean by a pressing process, by expulsion in an expeller press or by solvent extraction. Cocoa butter is an important ingredient for chocolate and other confectionery products, having a major influence on the organoleptic and physical properties. However, a number of factors drove the development of alternatives to cocoa butter. Firstly, as noted, more fat is required in proportion to the non-fat cocoa solids than is found in the bean. Secondly, the cocoa butter supply suffered a degree of uncertainty and variability. Thirdly, the price of cocoa butter was relatively high at the time.

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